Professionalism is considered by us as the behavior of people to carry out complicated (professional) activity with high effectiveness and quality while different conditions . Carrying out of activity at unfavourable conditions requires involvement of human´s existed potential possibilities - resources and reserves, which are directed to the compensation of unfavourable factors of environment, and also to the getting of positive result. Professionalism reveals not only at achievement of human high production indicators, but also at the peculiarities of his motivation, sence of labour, system of aspirations, value orientations, relations with the World.
Professional becoming can be represented at the view of two base lines: a) as the development of activity - of its structure, totality of ways and means, order of movement of which has target determination; b) as the process of development of human as a professional. At the article there is an accent to the theoretical analysis of becoming professional by human-personality. Human is a biological individual, personality, subject (of labour and life in common) and individuality. While the professional becoming there are brought into play all its levels, but degree of their "participation" changes depending on concrete phases. Professionalization is accompanied by the changing of human in common - of his individual, personality, subjective qualities, formation of individuality. The most meaningful here are highest levels of human - personality and subject.
The term "formation" is opened as category that expresses the changeability of things and phenomena - their continuous transition into something other, as the notion, which characterizes transition condition. While the psychological study of professionalism of human at the category "becoming" we would single out procedural and resultant aspects, which are dialectically connected. Procedural aspect is characterized by dynamism, constant incompleteness. Becoming (as the result) is considered as something already appeared, but still very far from completion. Let´s make it clear: something that appeared at the base of something and it´s developing. While the consideration of any line of professional becoming (development of activity or human) there is suggested that for such development there is a base - reached earlier levels of activity, or existent behavior of human. From this there is follow that becoming of professionalism is possible only at the base of human´s existing inside resources.
At psychological literature the professional becoming is considered as integral phenomenon, which includes not only objective (prestigiousness of profession, its social competitiveness and other social conditions) factors, but also subjective factors (attitude of human to the profession, to himself as to the professional, professional ideals etc). At the conception of professional becoming (T.V.Kudryavcev, A.V.Suharev) the result of professionalization is considered as finding by human of professional and social maturity. Procedural aspect is expressed at the comprehension of professional becoming as integrate continuous process, which is the part of life trip of human. Let´s accent that continuity of this process doesn´t mean its monotony what was repeatedly noted by researchers (heterogeneity of professional way - E.A.Klimov, V.D.Shadrikov and others; "intermittent" phases - at the transformational theory of professional studying - V.F.Venda).
We consider professional becoming as the process and result of interiorization by human of psychological models profession and professional activity. Psychological model of profession includes following submodels: a) model of professional environment; b) the conceptual model of professional activity; c) the model of specialist as of subject of activity (totality of images, which reflect the system of behavior and attitudes of human as member of professional community) . The becoming of professionalism of human we connect with development of personality at the base of his existed individual resources.
Development (at the scientific meaning) is a process of motion from the lowest (easy) to the highest (complicated), which realizes inside tendencies and essence of phenomena that leads to the appearance of new. At philosophy the development is considered as irreversible, directed, logical change of matter and consciousness; at the result of development there arises new condition of system - its composition or structure. There are singled out two lines of development: ascending (progress) and descending (regress). At first case there occur expansion and arising of system´s possibilities, complication of its inside and outward connections; at second case - decrease of such possibilities, which is accompanied by comparative simplification of system´s structure, by increase of irregularity at connections between its elements. The development is guaranteed to each element of any system and to systems of any kind. Changes occur spontaneously, because while the definite condition of system (appearance of inside and outside oppositions) they have no way not to happen. Development is not only quantitative changes, but also quality transformations. Therefore regress (to which belong not only professional deformations, but also destructive carrying out of activity) cannot be considered simplified as the process of return to the previous phases of development.
Changes of human occur inevitably, logical, involuntarily at that moment, when at the system "human - profession - World" there form antagonisms between requirements of professional activity and professional society, on the one hand, and possibilities, abilities, style of activity and communication, experience of human - on the other hand. While the considered like this professional development changes of human-personality are not planned by him "events in life", and they not depend on his will.
Professional development are inseparably connected with personality one. We share U.P.Povarenkov´s viewpoint, according to which professional development is continuation of whole development of human, but at the frames of new specific situation of development . And this situation, in our opinion, is set not only by contents and conditions of professional activity, but also by profession in whole as a social institute.
It´s common knowledge that individual characteristics of human (installations, degree of pretension, peculiarities of intellect etcю) can not only promote becoming of professional mastering and creative approach to the labour activity, but also impede it. We consider that only those characteristics that promote forming of his professional mastering and are accompanied by progressive changes in his personality can be put into the earlier singled out by us individual resource of professional development (IRPD) . The presence of necessary IRPD promotes human´s professionalization. The shortage of IRPD not only complicates professional becoming of human but also leads to the professional deformations, destructive carrying out of activity and to the premature professional aging .
Progressive should be considered such development of personality, while which happens progressive removal of miscoordinations between its separate behavior (and levels), and "generalization" of the system of relations of this personality (using of word of V.S.Merlin in respect to "integral individuality"). It´s hard to agree with wide opinion, which connects (or indentifies) professional development of personality with professional self-determination. Self-determination is the act of assertion of one´s own position at the problem situation. The process of self-determination, realization of oneself at the activity occurs while any professional way. But the achievement by human of professional self-determination it´s not surely the result of progressive development that leads a personality to the opening of its possibilities, to complication of its connections with the World.
Professional becoming, at the result of which personality becomes the subject of labour, characterizes the progressive line of professional development. This is the level on which human has mastered the professional activity and has become specialist at his professional sphere. But professional development of personality doesn´t stop while this. We defend the position, according to which for the progress by human the top of professionalism is not enough the appearance of subjectivity at professional activity. The necessary (and fundamental) condition of progressive development, reaching of professionalism, is conversion of personality to the higher level of self-consciousness.
The problem of self-consciousness, by S.L. Rubinshtein is the problem of definition of one´s own way of life. S.L.Rubinshtein (1940) singled out two ways of human´s existing in this world. First of them - is life, which doesn´t go out the spontaneous connections, in which human lives. In that case at the system of relations of human there dominant his attitude to certain phenomena of reality, but not to the life in common. Second way help human out of the frames of particular; it´s connected with the recognition of value-sense categories. L.M.Mitina orienting at these types of human´s existing describes two models of development: a) model of professional functioning - adaptation; b) model of professional development - creativity and personality growth . We consider that these models can be considered at the dynamic as the phases (levels) of professional development.
Professional functioning as adaptation is determined with oppositions, which occur at the system of "requirements of profession - possibilities and needs of human". Adaptation is considered widely: this is not only accommodation of human-personality, but also accommodation (transformation) of professional environment that means it´s changing according to the requirements of human-personality. In that case human acts like a subject of labour, emergent to the level of specialist. Examined level of professional functioning doesn´t require withdrawal from the "frames of peculiar". The dynamics of professional life by this model is adaptation, becoming and stagnation.
Professional self-development of personality (according to second model of development) is determined by oppositions between "Me-working", "Me-reflected" and "Me-creative". While the behavior of professional self-development, human is characterized by the ability to go out the frames of the current of peculiar. This allows to accept inside, to realize and value hardships and oppositions of different sides of professional activity, independently and constructively solve them according to one´s value orientations. We consider that this model of professional self-development is oriented to the active use of human´s existed individual resource (IRPD). The ascent of human by singled out by L.M.Mitina stages of this model (self-determination, self-expression, self-realization) characterizes the progressive line of professional development of personality. The result of such development is becoming of human-personality as the subject of life, and his behavior at profession and professional activity not only become part of his life, but also are defined by the system of his vital values, inside "picture of the World".
If profession stops to put human into the situations that require solving of oppositions then he should find the senses for his further self-development as the professional by himself. The source of self-development is IRPD; it defines the vector of personality´s development or the realization of its potentials. Professionalism doesn´t except humanity, and self-development appear itself the way of reaching and comprehension of humanity by specialist.
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